A Brief Introduction To The Extraction Thimble
Extraction thimble is an instrument for extracting nonvolatile substances from solids with a volatile solvent. It consists of three parts: reflux condenser, extractor body (with filter paper sleeve), and flask for solvent. The extracted sample is placed in a filter tube, and the solvent is heated. The steam rises from the side tube and drops into the sample through the reflux condensate tube. In this way, a relatively small amount of solvent can be used to achieve the purpose of complete extraction. Often used for fat extraction.
One method of extracting compounds from solid substances is to leach the desired substances by soaking the solids in a solvent for a long period of time. The solvent dosage is large, the efficiency is not high. The extractor used in the laboratory is to use the principle of solvent reflux and siphon so that the solid material is continuously extracted by pure solvent, which not only saves solvent but also increases extraction efficiency.
The solids are ground up before extraction to increase the area of solid-liquid contact. Then the solid substance is placed in the filter paper cover and placed in the extractor. The extractor is connected to a round bottom flask with a solvent at the bottom spoon and connected to a reflux condenser tube. Heat the flask, the solvent boiling, steam rising through the extractor pipeline, after condensation drops into the extractor solvent for extraction, and solid contact when four of the top solvent than the siphon, contains extract solvent siphoned back into the flask, and therefore part extracted substances, repeat, the solid material continuously to pure by solvent extraction, extracted substance concentration in a flask.
Liquid – solid extraction is the use of a solvent mixture of solid solubility of the ingredients in big, less solubility of the impurity to achieve the purpose of the extraction and separation. One way is to put the solid material in the solvent medium and long-term immersion and reach the purpose of extraction, but this method a long time, consumption of solvent, the extraction efficiency is not high also. Another is the method of soxhlet extractor, it is using the solvent backflow and siphon principle, for continuous extraction of solid mixture components needed.
When the extraction tube under the reflux solvent in the liquid level exceeds the siphon of the soxhlet extractor, extraction solvent flow in the tube back to the round bottom flask, namely siphon. With the temperature increases, at the beginning of reflux again, before each siphon, the solid substance can be extracted by the pure hot solvent, the solvent is repeatedly used to shorten the extraction time, so the extraction efficiency is higher.
Extraction – a method of separating solute from the solvent by extracting a substance from one solvent into another, taking advantage of its different solubility in two incompatible solvents. In fact, extraction is the motion of molecules or atoms, which is the result of atoms or molecules interacting with each other.
For example, bromine, which is more soluble in carbon tetrachloride than in water, we now want to separate bromine from water by adding bromine water to the divider, adding an appropriate amount of carbon tetrachloride, fully oscillating, standing, waiting for the mixture to stratification, you can see that the majority of bromine dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. We let the lower carbon tetrachloride flow out below, and the water flows out above, and that separates the bromine from the bromine water.
As for the effect of extraction, it mainly depends on the choice of extracted substances and extractants:
The extracted substance has a greater solubility in the extractant. The extraction agent and the original solvent do not dissolve. The extractant does not react with the extracted substance. The extractant is usually an organic solvent.